EXTREMELY RARE, SPECIAL ORDER 1ST TYPE WINCHESTER MODEL 1894 TAKEDOWN LEVER ACTION RIFLE.
AKA - THE TEN O'CLOCK SCREW - SN 4513. Cal. 38-55.
Winchester books state that 14,760 Model 1894's were built in the first year. Research indicates, while they may have manufactured a large batch of receivers, only about 1,300 to 1,400 1894's were actually built. Of those, not all of them even shipped in that first year. Several hundred were still uncompleted or simply sitting in Winchester's warehouse when the year 1895 rolled in. There are even model 1894's with one- and two-digit serial numbers that weren't built and shipped until 1895. In fact, the first .30-30 wasn't built until May 29, 1895 with a serial number that was only in the 5,000 range. The reason so few 1894's were built in that first year is that John Browning didn't patent the concept for the Model 1894 until August of that year. From there, it took engineers at Winchester about six weeks to tool up for production...which was quite a feat! Production didn't start until around October 20, 1894 with the first 1894 rifles being shipped at the end of October. As those last few remaining weeks passed in 1894, small quantities of 1894's trickled out of the Winchester warehouse to dealers but many...even very low numbers...stayed in the warehouse until 1895.
Winchester 1st Model 1894's. What are they? There were only approximately 2,000 made and they are generally found in serial ranges up to about 3,000. The highest known is one in the 7,000 range. All first models known are in caliber 38-55. So what's the difference between a first model and a second model, the main thing that separates a first model from a second model is the placement of the screws for securing the guide rails. First models have their screws located on the outside of the frame located just to the top left of the loading port. Second model guide rail screws are secured from the inside out about 1" forward of this position (or almost directly above the middle of the loading port.
This rifle is the pride of my Winchester collection, it has been with me for 20 plus years. This particular firearm is in amazing condition with, in my opinion, metal blue at 90% plus, with outstanding case colouring on the lever and hammer, vivid bright fire blue on loading gate and still visual on the extractor. This rifle is rare enough just being itself, now take into account the fine condition, then the fact that it is a special order take down rifle. My research so far indicates less than 10 take down 1st models were made, I will qualify that this research is ongoing. The hammer has the earliest style checkered border with the decorative dip at the top of the pattern. Upper tang is marked with the early three-line pattern 1. "MODEL 1894", 2. -WINCHESTER-, and 3. "PAT AUG. 21 1894." Nice barrel markings include the two line barrel address which reads "MANUFACTURED BY THE -WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO NEW HAVEN. CONN. U.S.A-". The caliber marking is located directly on the top of the barrel as "38-55" with no Winchester proofs. This is correct for an early 1894 made prior to 1901 or '02. Screws are all in excellent condition. The wood is excellent with outstanding figure. It functions beautifully with an excellent bright shiny bore. A very strong example of one of the latest 1st Model 1894's in existence. This is a rifle for the experienced Winchester collector.
oldguns.ca, virtual museum collection.
From the E. Lind collection.
Somewhere around 1905, Franklin Hiram Walker, son of Hiram Walker, founder of Walkertown and Walker distilleries, contracted Holland and Holland to build him a double rifle for an upcoming Chamois hunt in Italy. The rifle pictured was the result, the story goes that Mr. Walker went to Italy shot his Chamois and put the rifle away, never to be used again. Apparently, 6 shots were fired. The rifle was bequeathed to Mr. Walker's house manager, which then passed it along to his son, from whom the rifle was purchased. The provenance is solid, the condition is impeccable, the rarity of caliber is undeniable 295/300 rook, the grade is of the highest quality, for the double rifle collector this is the holy grail.
For additional information, please contact Mr. Lind at firstname.lastname@example.org .
This is the most beautiful double rifle I have ever held in my hands, just a show stopper. There is barely a 1/4 inch of un-engraved metal on this rifle, even the butt plate is completely engraved. Bores are beautiful, can't wait to shoot it. Flip up, Ivory bead front sight, beautiful english walnut stocks, nicely fitted pistol grip. I just have to clean out the old oil from the engraving and take some new pictures. Who says box locks cannot be best guns.
oldguns.ca, virtual museum collection.
The pepperbox, or at least the firearm that is mostly associated with this term, was invented in the 1830s and was intended for civilian use, but military officers often made private purchases for their own use. The design spread rapidly in the United States, the United Kingdom and some parts of continental Europe. It was similar to the later revolver in that it contained bullets in separate chambers in a rotating cylinder. Unlike the revolver, however, each chamber had its own barrel, making a complex indexing system unnecessary (though pepperboxes with such a system do exist). Originally these pistols were muzzle loaders, but in 1837 the Belgian gunsmith Mariette invented a hammerless pepperbox with a ring trigger and turn off barrels that could be unscrewed. A few percussion pepperboxes were still hand rotated but most have a mechanism that rotates the barrel group as the hammer is cocked for each shot. Single-action versions were made, notably by Darling of Massachusetts, but the vast majority use the self-cocking system whereby pressing the trigger rotates the barrel block, cocks the hammer and finally fires the weapon. The main producer of self-cocking top hammer pepperboxes (mostly referred to as "bar-hammer pepperbox") in the United States was Ethan Allen, but this type of weapon was also produced in very large quantities in England. Some pepperboxes fired the lower barrel instead of the upper, such as the American Blunt & Syms, the English Cooper or the Belgian Mariette (in configurations with between 4 and 24 barrels). Usually these employed an "underhammer" action, with the hammer mounted under the frame, behind the barrels, forward of the trigger (often a ring-trigger). Several other types of firing mechanisms exist, such as rotating internal firing pins (Rigby, Robbins and Lawrence, Comblain), rotating firing pins on a hammer (Sharps, Grunbaum) or multiple firing pins (Martin). During the early 1830s English gunsmith Joseph Manton offered a variant with a retractable knife blade and pistols with up to 18 barrels. The Robbins & Lawrence pepperboxes of 1851–1854 had rifled barrels, a break action breech loading mechanism and an early safety catch, meaning that it was not necessary to disassemble the gun to reload it. The flaw with the pepperbox is that it becomes more front heavy if the length and number of barrels is increased, making accurate aiming difficult. With most types in particular those with rotating barrel clusters, it is almost impossible to aim beyond close range because the hammer is in the line of sight (some pepperboxes have a slot in the hammer through which one is supposed to aim), there is no place to put a frontsight (putting one for each barrel would only increase the weight of the front end and likely make drawing the weapon awkward), and the gun is too front heavy to permit quick and steady aiming. However, the primary market was for civilian self-defense, so its most common use was at close range. Common practice at the time, indeed, was not to aim pistols, but instead to "shoot from the hip", holding the gun low and simply pointing at the target's center of mass. Gunfights often happened at very range. With this use in mind, many pepperboxes, in fact, have smooth-bored barrels, even though rifling had been commonly used for decades by the time of their manufacture. In the Old West, large pepperboxes were favoured by the gold prospectors of 1849, for protection against robbers, rival claimants and hostile native Americans. Both American and British made pepperboxes were also popular among gold miners in Australia as a cheaper alternative to the Colt Navy Revolver, and several were used at the Eureka stockade.
Multi shot percussion firearms were often considered dangerous because firing one powder charge could ignite the others (a "chainfire"), all at the same time, when proper care was not taken. This problem was largely eliminated by the introduction of nipple partitions, evident on later percussion revolvers, which largely shielded the percussion caps on neighbouring chambers from the flash struck by the weapon's hammer during firing. However, this feature is rarely seen on pepperboxes, although some had the nipples placed in recesses or at right angles to each other to reduce the chance of a chainfire. A chainfire in a pepperbox would be far less dangerous than in a single barreled revolver because with a pepperbox, each of its bullets could freely exit its own dedicated barrel (essentially turning it into an impromptu volley gun. Similarly if a chamber was not in exactly the right position when the hammer hit the cap it would fire normally and safely, as opposed to a single barrelled revolver where a cylinder misaligned with the barrel when fired could cause a potentially explosive malfunction. This simplicity and safety helped the pepperbox survive after more modern revolvers came along, as well as keeping production costs a lot lower than revolvers with their more complex mechanisms.
This particular piece is an amazing find, I believe this pistol to be unfired, made somewhere around the mid 18th century and to have remained in this condition for 170 years, it's almost impossible to believe.
oldguns.ca, virtual museum collection.
From the T. Neidy collection.
An Extravagant Pair of French Silver Mounted Pistols by Vergnes of Marseilles. 8 1/2", .63 cal. barrels with solid gold sights (not merely gilt). Locks in excellent working order with strong springs, waterproof pans and roller frizzen springs, signed "VERGNES a MARSEILLES" (working in Marseilles 1825-45. Stocks in excellent condition, no cracks, repairs or restoration. Heavy and deeply chased silver mounts of fine quality, with extremely fine quality (some of the best I've seen) silver wire and floral inlay covering all the remaining surface of the wood. Moreover, there is no loss whatever to the wire inlay, it is completely intact - not a bit has come loose, and that says a lot for the skill of the workmanship and the condition of the guns.
Accessories in the French-style fitted case include oil bottle, flask, mold, screwdriver, vent pick, screw-top dark horn box with original spare flints of correct size. The ornate brass and steel ramrod (Turkish:"suma") is a strong clue to the intended Balkan/Turkish destination for these pistols. The suma was worn on a cord around the neck, or from the belt - note that like many Eastern pistols, the ramrods on this pair are dummies. This one unscrews to reveal a long pair of bore-clearing tweezers (others with this feature are known), and the brass tip unscrews to reveal a ball-pulling screw. The case retains all its original lining in fine condition. There is a thin crack across the lid, but the lid is solid. The original key is present, and does operate the lock. A striking pair of pistols of very fine quality and condition.
For any additional information, please contact Mr. Neidy at email@example.com.
description coming shortly.
This is the most amazing pin fire revolver I have ever come across, the workmanship is without question just spectacular. I do not normally collect pin fires but I can't seem to separate myself from this piece. Just look at the hearts and the stylized L's, the gold wash, the complete 100% engraving even on the barrel. This must have been for a lady or maybe a valentine's day gift. Even with the minor flaws in the trigger guard and hammer, it is still in outstanding condition. Gold wash is very easy to rub off. The makers name is completely worn off the barrel panel but thanks to the pin fire forum, we were able to identify the maker as “Ch. T. Colard”, his design and construction is very easily identifiable.
The Swiss gun maker Samuel Joannes Pauly patented the first breech loading cartridge in 1812. This was for use in a shotgun with fixed barrels which was loaded by lifting a breech block on the top. French gun maker Henri Roux attempted to improve this cartridge in the 1820s but a constantly primed cartridge was felt by many to be too dangerous and many breech loading guns reverted to using an unprimed cartridge. This was fired by a separate percussion cap which was used on the still dominant muzzle-loading guns.
Casimir Lefaucheux of Paris decided in 1832 to patent a breechloader where the barrel hinged downwards to reveal the breech ends. These still used a separate percussion cap. Though used before this, (as seen in surviving pinfire shotshells that lists the names of early gun makers he signed contracts with in 1833 and 1834,) in 1835 he was granted an addition to the 1832 patent for a new type of cartridge in which the cartridge's priming compound is ignited by striking a small pin which protrudes radially from just above the base of the cartridge. These pins fitted into a small groove cut in the top of each barrel-end and made it easy to see if the gun was loaded. The cartridge used metal bases (often brass) with paper tubes which were usually loaded by the shooter or his staff but were not entirely gas-tight. This reduced the force of the charge and allowed powder residue and gas to escape.
The pinfire cartridge was greatly improved by the 1846 patent (number 1963) by Benjamin Houllier of Paris which introduced a base wad and effectively made the cartridge gas-tight which greatly improved the performance. They were cheap and clean shooting. These improved pinfire guns grew in popularity in France and some were imported by British gun makers to overwhelming indifference on the part of the gun users there. They were prejudiced technically against a gun that 'broke' in the middle, despite the much vaunted benefits of breechloading. They owned muzzle-loaders of exquisite perfection, considered themselves the best engineers in the world (inventing the Industrial Revolution), and had a poor view of the French - the old enemy and an unreliable ally.
It was not until the Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in London that breech loading guns were taken more seriously by British and American gun makers in particular. The display of a Lefaucheux breech loading gun inspired English apprentice gunmaker Edwin Charles Hodges (1831-1925) to make an improved copy and persuade leading London gun maker Joseph Lang that this was the gun of the future. Lang was universally credited to be the first established British gunmaker to produce pinfires in any numbers. His first weapon of this new type was produced in 1853. Other British gun makers including Lancaster, Blanch and Reilly were similarly inspired by French originals and improved pinfire breechloaders became the new type of gun which by 1857/8 every fashionable British prince and titled gentleman wanted to have. EC Hodges continued to make a good living as a specialist independent maker of breechloading actions commissioned by leading gunmakers such as Boss, Lancaster, Egg, Grant, Atkin, Rigby, Dickson, Purdey, Woodward, Army and Navy, and many others.
After Casimir's death in 1852, his son Eugene continued to market the pinfire design with great success. It became increasingly popular in Europe and large numbers of shotguns and revolvers (often called Lefaucheux guns after their inventor whoever the maker was), were manufactured from the mid-1850s until the 1890s. They were quicker and easier to load than percussion weapons with loose black powder, percussion caps and a bullet; and they were also much more likely to fire reliably when wet. Pinfire cartridges were available in a large number of sizes for various types of weapon.
While pinfire shotguns declined from the early 1860s after the introduction of mass-produced centerfire shotgun cartridges, pinfire revolvers in particular became very successful and widespread, being adopted by the armies of France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden and others. They were also used during the American Civil War, although sometimes despised because of their low power compared to Colt and other percussion revolvers. Some navies also adopted them, "sea service" examples often being made out of brass which is largely unaffected by the corrosion caused by salt.
Pinfire became obsolete once reliable rimfire and centerfire cartridges became available because without a pin which needed aligning in the slot in the chamber wall they were quicker to load. They were also safer because they had no protruding pin which could cause the ammunition to accidentally detonate during rough handling, particularly of loose ammunition.
oldguns.ca, virtual museum collection.
With its innovative Browning design action, the Model 1894 became the first Winchester specifically developed for smokeless powder. This model has seen continuous production since its inception and has outsold all other models. Most important of its many features were the cartridges Winchester developed for this action. The old standby 30 W.C.F., also known as the “30-30” (30 caliber bullet with 30 grains of powder) has killed more North American big game than any other cartridge and still remains popular to this day.
Early Model 1894 Calibers:
.32-40 – introduced in 1894
.38-55 – introduced in 1894
.25-35 – introduced in 1895
.30 W.C.F. (30-30) – introduced in 1895
.32 Winchester Special – introduced in 1901
The U.S. Army purchased 1,800 Model 1894 carbines on December 29, 1917 to help guard strategic defense industries in the Pacific Northwest. Production of receivers was suspended in 1943 during World War II. As serial numbers approached the one-million mark, the official model designation was changed from Model 1894 to the Model 94. The 1,000,000th Model 94 was presented to President Calvin Coolidge in 1927. As many special orders features were available, a variety of interesting configurations can be found in both rifles and carbines making the Model 1894 one of the most collectable of all Winchesters.
In 1964, major changes in the manufacturing process were adopted to lower production costs. As such, “pre ‘64” guns are recognized to be of higher quality and command higher prices in the collector market. The “post ‘64” guns have additional calibers, with both top and angle-eject models, and a variety of stock options.
Original Winchester factory records are available for this model from the Cody firearms Museum Cody, Wyoming, from serial number 1 thru 353999. .30-30 was the Model 1894's most popular caliber for more than a century; over 80% of those manufactured are in this chambering. This caliber is a world standard, and .30-30 ammunition is often available when other cartridges are not. Winchester 94s in .30-30s are synonymous with the term "deer rifle" in the minds of many hunters. This 1913-dated example, originally priced at $26.50, features an octagonal barrel, crescent butt, half magazine, and tang sight.
John Moses Browning (1855 - 1926) was a true genius of mechanical design. The son of a Mormon gunsmith, he began working full-time in that profession at age 15. His 1878 design for a single-shot metallic cartridge rifle resulted in the first of many patents that he would receive during his lifetime. In partnership with five of his brothers, Browning later opened a machine shop in Ogden, Utah, but the firm's output of three guns per day could not keep up with demand for his products. One of his rifles was purchased by a representative of Winchester Repeating Arms Company and shipped to Thomas G. Bennett, the firm's General Manager, who purchased the patent rights for $8,000 and hired the Browning brothers as Winchester "jobbers".
This rifle is chambered in 25-35 and sports an excellent bore and many special order features. The barrel is half round half octagon, it has a non checkered pistol grip, with pistol grip cap and button mag. There is a tang peep sight installed and the rear dovetail remains empty. The wood has seen some hunting but is in solid condition. The metal finish is a sold 70 percent, showing bright blues on the receiver as well as the barrel. The loading gate shows bright nitre blue. This is a really nice example of a Winchester Model 1894 and would make a nice addition to any Winchester collection.
oldguns.ca, virtual museum collection.
From the E. Lind collection.
The Farquharson Rifle is a single-shot hammerless falling block action rifle designed and patented by John Farquharson, of Daldhu, Scotland in 1872. George Gibbs, a gun maker in Bristol, became a co-owner of the Farquharson patent in 1875 and was the sole maker of Farquharson rifles until the patent expired in 18 97 Fewer than 1,000 Gibbs-Farquharson rifles were made, the last one being delivered in 1910.
A few years after the original Farquharson patent expired in 1889, many English gun makers began producing their own versions of Farquharson rifles utilizing actions made by Auguste Francotte in Herstal, Belgium. These actions were essentially exact copies of those used by Gibbs to build his military target Farquharson rifles, which had a solid combined lower tang and trigger guard. The actions had "PD" stamped on the receiver, which stood for "public domain," indicating there was no patent infringement in utilizing the design. W. J. Jeffery & Co. produced most of the "PD" Farquharson rifles, with the first ones being sold in 1895 as their Model 95 Falling Block Rifle. In 1904 Jeffrey introduced a larger version of this action called the Model 1904 and chambered in the 600 Nitro Express. The Model 95 and Model 1904 were listed in the Jeffery catalogs right up until 1927. However, beginning in 1912 the advertisements for the falling-block rifles carried the notation "Now made to order only, having been superseded by the Magazine Rifle.
Because of their rarity, original Gibbs-Farquharson rifles are highly prized collector pieces today. The "PD" Farquharson rifles by Jeffery and other makers are less rare, but are still generally considered collector pieces rather than working weapons.
This particular piece in an excellent example, barrel marked Parker Hale, this rifle is in excellent original condition throughout, not sure what else there is to say about it, if you have questions, please call to discuss.
For additional information, please contact Mr. Lind at firstname.lastname@example.org.